What are the processes of population change and their effect on people and places?
- Population change and demographic transition over time, including natural increase, fertility rate, life expectancy, population structure and dependency ratios – Detailed examples of two or more contrasting countries
- The consequences of megacity growth for individuals and societies – One case study of a contemporary megacity experiencing rapid growth
- The envrionmental and political causes and consequences for people and places of forced migration and internal displacement – Detailed examples of two or more forced movements, to include environmental and political push factors, and consequences for people and places
Synthesis, evaluation and skills opportunities
How the impacts of population change and spatial interactions between places can be categorized and represented graphically
Friday 24 September 2021
Demographic Transition over time…
|Starter: Define the following terms:|
1. Natural increase
2. Fertility rate
3. Life expectancy
4. Population structure
Demographic transition is best viewed through the lens of the now famous Demographic Transition Model (DTM), as shown below. This is essentially a line graph that plots birth and death rates over time & levels of economic development (stages). When birth rates are higher than death rates, population increases (shown in blue) and when birth rates dip under death rates, a population decline may take place. There are countries around the world who find themselves in four of the five stages and one might also see the pattern of economic development increasing (LIC-MIC-HIC) along the X axis too.
Task 1: Complete the worksheet below using the DTM model and your previous knowledge of the causes and effects of disparities in economic development. You can also use the video linked below to help you.
7 lines of writing only per stage, size 8 font.
Colour code as follows:
– Natural Increase – Blue
– Fertility Rates – Green
– Life Expectancy – Orange
– Population Structure – Red
Lesson 1. Demographic Transition Worksheet (Google Doc).
TOK consideration: Why can’t the early stages of the DTM above be attributed to Australia and the USA?
Task 2. Complete the DTM quiz handout!
Task 3. Test what you have learnt by playing the game below! Attempt to match the buttons with the descriptions and explanations. Read the statement and match it to the correct button. How fast can you be…?
Monday 27 September 2021
Study the graphic above carefully.
The chart presents the empirical evidence for the demographic transition for five very different countries in Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
In all countries we observed the pattern of the demographic transition, first a decline of mortality that starts the population boom and then a decline of fertility which brings the population boom to an end. The population boom is a temporary event.
In the past the size of the population was stagnant because of high mortality, now country after country is moving into a world in which the population is stagnant because of low fertility.
Task 1. Power, Place and Processes – ‘Dead Mums Don’t Cry’
Watch the following video based in Chad. It features examples of people struggling with situations in both stage 1 and early stage 2 of the demographic transition model. In the latter part of the film Honduras illustrates how a country moves from stage 2 to stage 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What factors hold back improvements to maternal mortality in Chad?
2. What factors have lead Honduras to improve maternal mortality rates so rapidly?
- 5-10 minutes – Chad featuring a more advanced State-funded hospital
- 18-25 minutes – Conditions for women in Rural Chad
- 28 – 33 minutes – Honduras
The total dependency ratio tells us the proportion of the population not in the work-force who are ‘dependent’ on those of working-age, it’s a calculation which groups those aged under 15 with those over 65 years as the ‘dependents’ and classifying those aged 15-64 years as the working-age population. It’s a simplistic calculation which is used across the world to understand societies and get a sense of potential pressures the economy may face in supporting an economically dependent population (source).
TOK consideration: One of the obvious limitations of dependency ratios is the assumption that people under 15 years and over 65 years (65+) are outside of the labour force, as well as the assumption that those aged 15-64 are participating in the labour force. We all know that these assumptions are flawed.
Task 2. Complete the worksheet below using the interactive version of the map above.
Lesson 2. Age Dependency Worksheet (Google Doc).
Tuesday 28 September 2021
Reminder: Due date for first assessment! Ensure that you email/share a google doc with me!
Population pyramids help show how populations are composed and how they are changing. Here is a population pyramid from the United States in August 2016 showing various age groups: baby boomers, generation X, generation Y, and generation Z. Typically, there are three trends in population pyramids: expansive, constrictive, and stationary. These illustrate the trajectory of a regional population, which may be growing, shrinking, or staying the same.
Lesson 3. Population Pyramids (Google Doc)
Task 1. Make a copy of the population pyramid below into your notes:
Task 2. Complete the population annotation activity outlined on the worksheet.
Demographic Transition: Contrasting Examples
Task 3. Using the links below and the worksheet, describe the process of population change in both France and Ethiopia. Make reference to Population Structure, Natural Increase, Fertility Rates, Dependency Ratios and Life Expectancy.
Lesson 3. Contrasting Countries Worksheet (Google Doc)
Part 1 – Population Structure Over Time (Population Pyramids)
Part 2 – Natural Increase Over Time
Part 3 – Fertility Rates Over Time
Part 4 – Dependency Ratio Over Time
Part 5 – Life Expectancy Over Time
Friday 01 October 2021
The Consequences of Megacity Growth for Individuals and Societies
In the next twenty years, Lagos is likely to become one of the largest megacities in the world, but built 30% on water and facing the threat of climate change its future is uncertain.
How are different groups impacted by mega city growth in Lagos?
- To describe the growth of Lagos
- To examine the causes of population growth in Lagos
- To examine the consequences of growth for individuals and societies
Lesson 4. Lagos Worksheet (Google Doc)
Starter. All About Lagos…
Read the following poems about Lagos and write down your first impressions about the nature and characteristics of Lagos.
Task 1. Map and Graph Study. Analyse the maps and graphs on the worksheet and respond to the questions.
Task 2. Lagos, Africa’s Fastest Growing Megacity
Watch the video linked below and answer the questions on the worksheet.
Task 3. The Eko Atlantic Project
Eko Atlantic is an entire new coastal city being built on Victoria Island adjacent to Lagos, Nigeria. It is a focal point for investors capitalising on rich development growth based on massive demand – and a gateway to emerging markets of the continent.
Read the following piece of text about the Eko Atlantic Project and note down the benefits and concerns of the project on your worksheet.
Task 4. An Alternative Future? Floating Communities…
Watch the following video based on an alternative future suggested by the architect, Kunlé Adeyemi and answer the questions on your worksheet.
Monday 04 October 2021
Question: Examine the opportunities and challenges of a contemporary megacity experiencing rapid growth. (10)
- Examine requires an evaluative approach.
- The essay should develop a relative balance of opportunities and challenges specific to the case study.
- An in-depth understanding of the case study is required, with opportunities and challenges well developed in terms of their time-frame, or social, economic, environmental aspects
- The essay will develop an argument that suggests a balance or weighting towards opportunities or challenges
- The conclusion will be consistent with the introduction and argument with the main body
Essay Planning Tool (PDF)
Essay Frame (Google Doc)
Tuesday 05 and Wednesday 06 October 2021
Part 1. Migration Trends
Migration takes place both internally, within countries and externally across countries. There is short term and long term, voluntary and forced movements of people.
Around the world, there are currently:
People in refugee-like situation: 803,134
Refugees: 17.187 million
IDPs: 36.627 million
Asylum seekers: 2.826 million
Why do people leave their place of origin and migrate to new places?
- To identify and classify different types of migration
- To describe the impacts of migration on the physical environment
- To discuss the complexity of the refugee status in Europe
Lesson 5. Migration Worksheet (Google Doc)
Task 1. Match the key term to the correct defintion on your worksheet.
Task 2. Describe the main global migration trends as shown in the map on your worksheet (which countries receive the most migrants/which countries lose the most migrants)?
- Length of stay
- Distance travelled
- Reason for migration
1. Length of Stay
- Temporary – when the migrant intends to return to their place of origin
- Permanent – when the migrant intends to stay in their destination
2. Distance travelled
- Internal – within a country
- External – across more than one country (immigration and emigration)
3. Reason for Migration
- Forced – when the migrant has no choice to migrate. This may be due to racial, religious, political reasons and even environmental factors
- Voluntary – when the migrant chooses to migrate normally for social or economic reasons
Task 3. Try to think of 8 different examples of migration that have occurred throughout history/today. Add them to the table on your worksheet and categorise according to the three different categories listed.
Part 2. The causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement…
For this section of work, we are required two forced movements of people.
For Internal Migration we are going to study climate refugees in Bangladesh. This is a forced movement of people caused by the rising sea levels and more intense typhoons (environmental factors but with a human cause).
Our comparative case study concerning External Migration we will be studying the political situation in Venezuela and resultant movement of people out of the country. Venezuela has the highest oil reserves in the world but has suffered from an over reliance on oil and has faced severe economic hardship since hte price of oil decreased. Coupled with a complicated current political situation where there are two recognised leaders of the country (Nicolás Maduro & Juan Guaidó) this has led to geopolitical conflict among Venezuela, its neighbours as well as countries such as the USA and France.
Case Study 1. Internal Migration: Bangladesh
Task. Using the information below, take notes on the causes and consequences of the Bangladesh migration using the following headings as a guide:
- Facts and figures about the migration
- Causes of the migration
- Consequences for people
- Consequences for surrounding regions
- How Bangladesh is trying to mitigate and adapt to their increasingly destructive flood events
BBC World Dec 2020 Article (mitigation and adaptation)
Climate Change in Bangladesh (Causes)
Bangladesh Climate Migrants 2018 Guardian Article (causes and consequences)
Bangladesh Climate Migrants Interactive (causes and consequences)
Case Study 2. External Migration: Venezuela
Task. Using the information below, take notes on the causes and consequences of the Venezuela migration using the following headings as a guide:
- Facts and figures about the migration
- Brief history of the forced migration situation
- The political push factors
- Consequences for people
- Consequences for surrounding countries (destinations)
- Geopolitical tensions between Venezuela and other countries.