Part 3. Hazard Risk and Vulnerability

Conceptual Understanding:

Key Question:

How do geophysical hazards affect people in different local contexts?

Key Content:

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards 
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards.
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being.
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness.

We will be investigating the following hazards as part of this unit of work:

  1. Haiti Earthquake (2010)
  2. Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011)
  3. Nyiragongo Eruption (2002)
  4. Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (2010)
  5. The Guinsaugon Landslide (2006)
  6. Mocoa Landslide (2017)

Wednesday 14 February 2024

Quick Quiz!

hazard, resilience, secondary hazards, risk, vulnerability, hazard perception, adaptations, disasters, exposure

______________  are ways in which human activities/actions are altered to take into account the increasing risk of hazards.

______________ the degree to which people and/or infrastructure in a place that could be impacted by a natural hazard.

______________   are major hazard events that causes widespread disruption to a community or region, with significant demographic, economic and/or environmental losses, and which the affected community is unable to deal with adequately without outside help.

______________   is the probability of a hazard event causing harmful consequences, deaths, injuries, property damage economy and environment.

______________   is the geographic, political, social, demographic and economic conditions that increase the susceptibility of a community to a hazard or to the impacts of a hazard event.

______________    is the degree to which a hazard is considered to be a threat by different people.

______________    are indirect effects of a natural hazard occurring after the initial primary hazard.

A _____________   is a threat (whether natural or human) that has the potential to cause loss of life, injury, property damage. socio-economic disruption or environmental degradation.

 ______________  is the ability to protect lives, livelihoods and infrastructure from destruction, and to the ability to recover after a hazard has occurred.

Geophysical Hazard Event Profiles

Starter: What six characteristics of geophysical hazards do you think will impact the severity of a hazard and therefore the risk and vulnerability of the population?

Hazard Profiles

A hazard profile is a description of the physical characteristics of a specific hazard and determination of its various descriptors including magnitude, duration, frequency, probability, and extent. The following diagram shows the hazard profile of two contemporary earthquakes. On the left are the characteristics of the hazard. The numbering on the top relates to severity.  As can be seen the two hazards have very similar profiles with the green profile being marginally more severe across the profile.

Earthquake Hazard Profile

Task 1. Using the resources provided create your own hazard profiles to contrast the two volcanic eruptions, two earthquakes and two mass movements that we are using as our case studies for this unit of work.

Lesson 1. Hazard Resources (Google Doc)

Lesson 1. Hazard Profile Template (Google Doc)

Thursday 22 February 2024

Today we will begin investigating the impacts of our hazard case studies:

  1. Haiti Earthquake (2010)
  2. Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011)
  3. Nyiragongo Eruption (2002)
  4. Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (2010)
  5. The Guinsaugon Landslide (2006)
  6. Mocoa Landslide (2017)

Starter: Sort flash case study cards into scale of:

  1. Human loss
  2. Economic loss
  3. Spatial impact
  4. Overall severity of impacts

Discussion: To what extent is economic cost fairly represented by total cost?

Comparing Haiti and Japan Earthquakes

Haiti and Japan Earthquake Comparision (Google Doc)

Task 1. Using the selection of graphics in the above document write a short paragraph to compare the scale of economic impact of the two earthquakes.

Task 2. Now study this resource document and complete the table of impacts in the above document.

Task 3. Watch the following clip from on the Cholera Outbreak in Haiti following the earthquake in 2010 and complete a transcript for the picture news story that features in the clip.

Comparing Nyiragongo and Eyjafjallajokull Volcanoes

Nyiragongo and Eyjafjallajokull Comparison (Google Doc)

Task 4. Using the following resources complete the table to contrast the impacts.

Comparing Guinsaugon and Mocoa Landslides

Guinsaugon and Mocoa Lanslides Comparison (Google Doc)

Task 5. Study the two maps showing the Guinsaugon and Mocoa landslides

Work in pairs with one student working with one map each to describe the scale and physical factors relating to the impacts.

Task 6. Study the gallery of images in the google doc and record the impacts experienced in the Mocoa landslide.

Task 7. Watch the following videos showing the aftermath and recovery of Guinsaugon and complete the impacts table in the google doc.


When finished you can answer the Check Your Understanding Questions on Page 195 of the textbook.

Monday 26 February 2024

Paper 2 Exam – Optional Themes – 2 hours 15 mins

Option B. Oceans and Coastal Margins

  • Coastal landforms
  • Erosion processes
  • Sea level changes and resulting landforms
  • International conflict for abiotic resources
  • Impacts of hurricanes

Option D. Geophysical Hazards

  • Types of volcano
  • Geophysical hazard event profiles
  • Predicting geophysical hazards
  • Human and physical factors influencing mass movement events
  • Vulnerability ofcommunities to geophysical hazard risk

Option G. Urban Environments

  • Consequences of rapid urbanisation
  • Causes of growth of large cities
  • Impacts of slum clearance
  • Impacts of centrifugal population movements (movement OUT OF cities) on residential areas in cities