Part 3. Hazard Risk and Vulnerability

Conceptual Understanding:

Key Question:

How do geophysical hazards affect people in different local contexts?

Key Content:

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards 
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards.
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being.
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness.

We will be investigating the following hazards as part of this unit of work:

  1. Haiti Earthquake (2010)
  2. Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011)
  3. Nyiragongo Eruption (2002)
  4. Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (2010)
  5. The Guinsaugon Landslide (2006)
  6. Mocoa Landslide (2017)

Wednesday 12 October 2022

Quick Quiz!

hazard, resilience, secondary hazards, hazard events, risk, vulnerability, hazard perception, adaptations, disasters.

______________  are ways in which human activities/actions are altered to take into account the increasing risk of hazards

______________  are the occurrence of a hazard, the effects of which change demographic, economic and/or environmental conditions

______________   are major hazard event that causes widespread disruption to a community or region, with significant demographic, economic and/or environmental losses, and which the affected community is unable to deal with adequately without outside help

______________   is the probability of a hazard event causing harmful consequences, deaths, injuries, property damage economy and environment

______________   is the geographic conditions that increase the susceptibility of a community to a hazard or to the impacts of a hazard event

______________    is the degree to which a hazard is considered to be a threat by different people

______________    are indirect effects or secondary effects of a natural hazard occurring after the initial primary hazard

A _____________   is a threat (whether natural or human) that has the potential to cause loss of life, injury, property damage. socio-economic disruption or environmental degradation

 ______________  is the ability to protect lives, livelihoods and infrastructure from destruction, and to the ability to recover after a hazard has occurred

Geophysical Hazard Event Profiles

Starter: What six characteristics of geophysical hazards do you think will impact the severity of a hazard and therefore the risk and vulnerability of the population?

Hazard Profiles

A hazard profile is a description of the physical characteristics of a specific hazard and determination of its various descriptors including magnitude, duration, frequency, probability, and extent. The following diagram shows the hazard profile of two contemporary earthquakes. On the left are the characteristics of the hazard. The numbering on the top relates to severity.  As can be seen the two hazards have very similar profiles with the green profile being marginally more severe across the profile.

Earthquake Hazard Profile

Task 1. Using the resources provided create your own hazard profiles to contrast the two volcanic eruptions, two earthquakes and two mass movements that we are using as our case studies for this unit of work.

Lesson 1. Hazard Resources (Google Doc)

Lesson 1. Hazard Profile Template (Google Doc)

Thursday 13, Wednesday 26 and Thursday 27 October 2022

Today we will begin investigating the impacts of our hazard case studies:

  1. Haiti Earthquake (2010)
  2. Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011)
  3. Nyiragongo Eruption (2002)
  4. Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (2010)
  5. The Guinsaugon Landslide (2006)
  6. Mocoa Landslide (2017)

Starter: Sort flash case study cards into scale of:

  1. Human loss
  2. Economic loss
  3. Spatial impact
  4. Overall severity of impacts

Discussion: To what extent is economic cost fairly represented by total cost?

Comparing Haiti and Japan Earthquakes

Lesson 2. Haiti and Japan Earthquake Comparision (Google Doc)

Task 1. Using the selection of graphics in the above document write a short paragraph to compare the scale of economic impact of the two earthquakes.

Task 2. Now study this resource document and complete the table of impacts in the above document.

Task 3. Watch the following clip from on the Cholera Outbreak in Haiti following the earthquake in 2010 and complete a transcript for the picture news story that features in the clip.

Comparing Nyiragongo and Eyjafjallajokull Volcanoes

Lesson 2. Nyiragongo and Eyjafjallajokull Comparison (Google Doc)

Task 4. Using the following resources complete the table to contrast the impacts.

Comparing Guinsaugon and Mocoa Landslides

Lesson 2. Guinsaugon and Mocoa Lanslides Comparison (Google Doc)

Task 5. Study the two maps showing the Guinsaugon and Mocoa landslides

Work in pairs with one student working with one map each to describe the scale and physical factors relating to the impacts.

Task 6. Study the gallery of images in the google doc and record the impacts experienced in the Mocoa landslide.

Task 7. Watch the following videos showing the aftermath and recovery of Guinsaugon and complete the impacts table in the google doc.


When finished you can answer the Check Your Understanding Questions on Page 195 of the textbook.

Wednesday 09 November 2022

Practice Exam Questions

Complete the practice paper given for Geographyical Hazards (no notes).

The paper will consist of 3 short response questions (total of 10 marks) and an essay question (10 marks). You will choose ONE of the following questions:

Option 1.

Explain the forces that cause plate movement and the resulting volcanic activity.

Success Criteria:

  • The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the processes that cause plate movement and different processes creating volcanic activity
  • The essay should develop an understanding of heat transfers in the mantle and the presence of convection cells and mantle plumes. Plate movement is driven by the processes of slab pull at subduction zones and ridge push at divergent plate boundaries. Frictional drag by convection may also be a factor developed.
  • The essay may develop divergent and convergent boundaries. At divergent plate boundaries ocean floor spreading and rifting occurs leading to a fall in pressure in the mantle and rising magma. At convergent boundaries subduction occurs, leading to a partial melting of the mantle wedge due to saturated oceanic crust entering the mantle. Part of the crust melts too, causing magma to rise upwards through the crust.
  • Divergent boundaries create basaltic flow, which have low viscosity and convergent boundaries create more andesitic magma, which has high viscosity and high explosivity
  • Student may develop hotspots focused on the fixed positioning of mantle plumes.
  • Accurate diagrams may support this essay

Option 2.

Discuss the causes of seismic activity and the resulting associated hazards.

Success Criteria:

  • The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the causes of seismic activity and their associated primary and secondary hazards. Seismic activity should be well defined and the essay may develop different types of seismic waves linked to the hazards they pose.
  • Seismic activity should be linked to the storage and release of stress in faults. Types of stress are linked to plate movement and type of fault.
  • Seismic activity produces a range of primary hazards, including shaking and rolling ground and cracking and collapsing of the surface.
  • Seismic activity produces a wide range of secondary hazards, including collapsing buildings, landslides, fires, tsunamis and  and liquefaction
  • Accept well drawn labelled/annotated diagrams as part of the response

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